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Body

Can cervical cancer be avoided?

Cancer Research has found that 99.8% of cases of cervical cancer are avoidable. Learn more about the symptoms of cervical cancer, as well as how to spot them.

The number of cases of cervical cancer has virtually halved since the 90's. Thanks to national screening programmes, death rates have fallen by almost two-thirds in the past 30 years. However, recent figures have indicated that screening uptake is at its lowest in decades. In 2018, 3 million women hadn’t had a smear test in over 3 and a half years.

Who’s at risk?

More than half of diagnoses are in the under 50's. Doctors now know that it’s caused in part by the human papilloma virus (HPV). “The virus is so common that almost everyone who’s had sex has been exposed,” explains Consultant Gynaecological Oncologist Adeola Olaitan. “The important thing to remember is most women who get HPV will not get cervical cancer, as their immune system fights off the virus.”

How to lower your risk

“If you smoke, make an effort to give up, as it weakens your immune system and significantly increases your risk of HPV developing into cervical cancer,” says Olaitan. Research has also found the risk doubles if taking the pill for five years or more.

Cervical cancer symptoms

“The key thing to look out for is abnormal vaginal bleeding between periods, after sex or after the menopause,” says Olaitan. “Some women also notice smelly discharge or pain during sex. All sorts of other conditions can cause these symptoms, but it’s worth getting them checked as, caught early, cervical cancer is very treatable.”

Take action

“Never ignore your invitation for a smear test,” says Olaitan. “It detects early changes to your cervix, so you can be treated to prevent cancer developing. Smears are painless and nothing to be scared of. It only takes a few minutes and it could save your life.” To learn more about what happens during a smear test, cervical cancer charity Jo’s Trust have put together a helpful guide.

Cervical screening begins at 25 and continues until 64. Plus, since 2008 there has been an HPV vaccination programme for girls aged 12 and 13. “The vaccine can help prevent two strains of HPV infection, but not if you’ve already been exposed – hence why it’s given to girls before they’re sexually active,” says Olaitan. According to government statistics from 2018, 80% of 15-24 year old girls and women have received the vaccine, which helps to protect them from cervical cancer.