High blood pressure readings occur when the force of blood pushing against the walls of blood vessels and arteries is consistently too ‘high’. This makes the heart have to work harder to pump the blood around the body and can contribute to hardening of the arteries, stroke, kidney disease or heart failure.
Blood pressure readings are calculated using one number ‘over’ another: systolic blood pressure over diastolic. The blood pressure monitor shows measurements in millimetres of mercury, appearing as ‘mmHg’. Everyone’s blood pressure will be slightly different and you would need to discuss with a medical professional as to what’s safe for you. The normal blood pressure range for adults comes in between 90/60mmHg and 120/80mmHg and a reading of 140/90mmHg or above is classified as high blood pressure.
Knowing these numbers can help make you more aware of your health, and may help you to stay on top of your blood pressure. You can find out what your blood pressure readings mean by using our free blood pressure tool
High blood pressure can affect anyone at any age with the cause often unknown. Cheryl Lythgoe, Matron at Benenden Health states: “Several modifiable factors may play a role including smoking, being overweight, poor physical activity and an unhealthy diet. We unfortunately cannot modify our age, genetics or family history so it is even more important to ensure we appropriately manage our lifestyles.”
In the worst case scenarios and if high blood pressure symptoms are left untreated, serious conditions affecting both the heart and lungs can occur. High blood pressure is the largest single known risk factor for cardiovascular (heart and blood flow) disease and related health problems and can lead to:
Coronary artery failure
Eclampsia - seizures during pregnancy
While symptoms of high blood pressure can be non-existent in some cases, sufferers may experience:
Nose bleeds - these are rarely serious but if frequent or heavy nose bleeds occur it could indicate further health issues
Pounding in the chest, neck or ears - when you haven't been exercising vigorously could be a sign of high blood pressure
Difficulty breathing - shortness of breath during routine activities
Vision problems - blurred vision through to a complete lack of vision caused by damaging the blood vessels around the eye
Fatigue or confusion - any sudden change in a person's consciousness or sudden lethargy/drowsiness is a cause for concern
Blood in the urine - known as haematuria. It is thought this occurs due to the rupture of cysts or blood vessels around cysts in the kidneys and may lead to pink, red or brown urine
Severe headaches - which cannot be resolved with simple painkillers, especially if there has been no history of migraines
Severe chest pain - mild or irregular episodes could indicate signs of high blood pressure
If you think you’re experiencing any of the effects of high blood pressure and are concerned about your health, you should speak to your GP
Most people with high blood pressure are diagnosed with primary hypertension – a class of high blood pressure that doesn’t have a known secondary cause. People who have an underlying medical condition are diagnosed with secondary hypertension.
The causes of high blood pressure can be hard to pinpoint but there are lifestyle factors that can increase your risk, particularly
Drinking too much alcohol - regularly exceeding alcohol intake recommendations
Eating too much salt - salt intake makes your body hold onto water, this extra water then increases your blood pressure
Being overweight or obese - puts more strain on your heart as well as causing fatty deposits to line your arteries increasing blood pressure
Not doing enough exercise - doing exercise increases your blood pressure for a short period but over time will give you a lower resting blood pressure
Not eating a nutritious diet of fruits and vegetables - consuming saturated fats and cholesterol increase blood pressure, swapping these for fruit, vegetables and low fat dairy products can help avoid high blood pressure
Smoking - this narrows and hardens your arteries making blood clots more likely to occur
The causes of high blood pressure can be wide and varied. If you’re worried that any of the above factors are causing direct damage to your body, you should visit your GP. Likewise, if you're concerned about low blood pressure symptoms, make sure to seek medical guidance.
Benenden Health members can take advantage of a discounted price on health assessments through our partners, Bluecrest Health Screening.
While high blood pressure may be controlled with medication from your GP, there are a number of lifestyle changes that can ease the pressure on your heart and body.
By finding the root cause of increased blood pressure, you may be able to improve your health without the need for medication. However, always make sure to speak to your GP before drastically changing your lifestyle or starting a new fitness regime. Methods to reduce your blood pressure include:
Reduce body mass and control your weight - losing weight makes it easier for your arteries to expand and contract, which in turn makes it easier for your heart to move blood around your body
Exercise regularly - this makes your heart stronger and more efficient at pumping blood, lowering blood pressure in your arteries
Maintain a healthy diet - eating grains, fruit and vegetables can help maintain a lower blood pressure
Reduce the level of sodium in your diet - swapping processed foods for fresh food is an easy way to lower your salt intake
Reduce stress levels - prolonged stress can increase blood pressure, finding ways to reduce your stress such as listening to soothing music can help manage your blood pressure
Limit the amount of alcohol you drink - alcohol is linked to 16% of high blood pressure cases around the world, staying within recommended guidelines will reduce your chances of developing high blood pressure
Stop smoking - chemicals in tobacco are known to damage your arteries, affecting your blood pressure
Monitor your blood pressure regularly - as you get older your blood pressure is likely to increase. it is recommended you get your blood pressure checked once a year
Reduce your caffeine intake - caffeine causes an instant increase in your blood pressure, try shopping for decaffeinated options